Informative essay consists of the following parts:
- Bibliographic description (title of the document, header, surname and initials of the author, title of the publication (e.g., journal), year, size, issue number or date, pages, language of publication).
- The text of the essay.
- Additional information (address of the author’s organization in parentheses, information on the number of illustrations, tables and bibliography, the first letter of the name and the full name of the referent – a person, who wrote an essay).
The text of the essay is written (printed) from the paragraph and begins with an exposition of the essence of the problem considered in the work. The text of the essay should be based on a certain plan:
- Theme, subject, nature, features, and purpose of the work.
- Method or methodology of the work.
- Concrete results obtained in the work (theoretical or experimental), discovered relationships and regularities.
- Conclusions, recommendations, evaluation, suggestions, described in the original source.
- Scope and possibilities of industrial and scientific application of the results of work, which are noted by the author.
The presentation is based on the importance of the selected information. First, the essence of the question is presented in a concentrated form, then the necessary factual data are given. Replacement of specific (numerical) data with general phrases in the informative essay is not allowed.
The average size for informative papers is about 1,000 characters.
Thus, when compiling an essay, you must adhere to the following algorithm:
- Revise the text in order to obtain a general idea of the text as a whole.
- Select the paragraphs containing that contain specific information on the topic of the article, the method of conducting the work, the result of the work, and application in a particular area.
- Reduce the inessential information in these paragraphs for each item.
- Write generalized basic information in the form of an abstract in accordance with the plan for its writing: topic, method, results, conclusions, and application.
Preamble of the Paper
The preamble usually articulates the problem to which the paper is devoted, the topic of the primary source, as well as the main issues that are considered in connection with this issue. The topic, as a rule, is reflected in the name of the source, the problem is not always formulated by the author of the source. In this case, the referee must detect it when reading the text and formulate it independently. The relationship between the topic and the problem can be designated as the ratio of the part and the whole. Therefore, the problem should receive a broader formulation in the abstract than the topic. The topic is just one aspect of the problem. For example, if the problem of the article is the state of higher education in Pennsylvania, then aspects of the consideration of this problem (i.e. topics) can be, for example, a Transition to a two-level education system; Quality of higher education in Pennsylvania; Paid educational services in the system of higher education; etc.
The preamble may also include an indication of the existence of a new, previously unpublished information.
When preparing the preamble, the following language constructions (clichés) are used (by choice of referring):
- This article is devoted to the problem...; The author raises one of the most important (actual) problems; The author turns to the problem...; etc.
- The subject of the article is...; The article is called...; This is the article on the topic...; etc.
When listing the issues selected for coverage in the essay, you can use one of the following constructions:
- In connection with the problem posed, the author turns to the following questions...
- In this article, we are discussing the following questions...
- To solve the problem, the author needed to cover the following questions.
- In the framework of this problem, the author dwells on such issues as....
The Main Part
This part of the informative essay includes a brief description of the content of the important provisions of the source listed in the introduction. To do this, it is necessary to find in the text information that should necessarily be included in the text of the essay and make it shorter formulating it with a generalized form – present it in your own words. To do this, you can use both active and passive constructions. To avoid stylistic monotony, it is best to use alternately both types of constructions.
Simultaneously, the essay description of the basic information can be accompanied by the inclusion in the text of the paper of the constructions characterizing the composition (structure) of the source text. The most characteristic of them are the following:
- In the first part of the work
- At the beginning of the work
- In the opening part
- In the introduction
- In the second part
- First, then, at the end
- The author considers
- The author analyzes
- The author singles out
- The author notes that
- The author pays attention
The author’ point of view, which is necessarily referred to when presenting the main points of the work, can be introduced into the essay text and with the help of preamble constructions.
The conclusion contains summaries the author of the informative essay formulates on the basis of the conclusions of the author of the article, given at the end of each part or at the end of the work (last paragraph). If the conclusions are not formulated by the author, then the referee formulates them independently on the basis of the information described.
This part is made out of one of the following constructions:
- In conclusion, the author comes to the conclusion...
- Based on the above, the author concludes that...
- In conclusion, it should be noted that...
- As a result, the author concludes...
In addition, an evaluation part may be included in the essay, which is not mandatory for informative papers. It can contain an overall assessment of the author’s text in terms of the relevance of the problem raised in it, its novelty, the language design of the text, the availability of the presentation for the reader, etc.
Thus, to compose an essay, you need to select the following sequence of actions:
- Carefully read the text. When reading the text, try to highlight the most important words and phrases in the semantic sense in each paragraph. Mark them with a pencil or write in a draft.
- When reading, watch how the information is revealed in the text, i.e. what sub-themes constitute the content of the text. To get a deeper understanding of the semantic structure of the text, draw up a scheme for the deployment of text information or make a plan.
- Look for new information for the sake of which the text was created. Pay attention to the conclusions to which the author comes.
- Think about what information can reduce the text. Where possible, make the information shorter using words with a generalized meaning like definition, analysis, features, causes, conditions, signs, development history, ways, examples, conclusions, etc., which will help you replace the whole fragments of the text with one or two sentences.
- Formulate and write down the problem and topic of the text, as well as the main questions, the description of which you will give in the essay in a generalized form.
Selecting the Material
The most modern and lazy way of selecting literature is the internet. To search for information, enter the website of one of the recognized search engines, such as Yandex and Google, and enter the keywords on our topic. It is best to look for not just any information on this topic, but electronic versions of textbooks and scientific articles. In this case, the information will be reliable and truly scientific. All articles found on the internet and sections of books should be stored in one folder, clearly naming each source, even though the temptation to quickly copy and just save the link is great. This will save time in finding the desired thesis.
Do not neglect the library, because often there, it is possible to find the main material. And information from the internet can be auxiliary. In addition to books it is desirable to use periodicals. It is important that the information is up-to-date, and the textbooks are recent. As the topic is mastered and a set of necessary information begins, a conditional plan of the abstract begins to form. When all the material is selected, proceed directly to the writing of an informative essay.
Your Essay Will Stand out if You Pay Attention to Details
- Convince that the content of the essay corresponds to its general purpose or chosen theme.
- Watch the sentence structure and choose the right words. On the one hand, your essay should not look like an excerpt from an explanatory dictionary, but on the other, it should demonstrate the availability of knowledge and high culture.
- Carefully re-read your essay. Punctuation and grammatical errors can greatly weaken its credibility.